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Important to realize is that this transition process is very much inluenced and depending on various circumstances of that time: The time provided very fertile conditions which enabled Schinkel to develop a new architecture that at the same time gave an impulse to the Prussian industries.

He falls into a coma. And apart from a few moments of clarity, he did never awaken from this coma. Schinkel dies, 13 month later, at the age of 59, on October 9, For Schinkel to be able to design a project like the Bauakademie two crucial preconditions were vital. On the one hand a very thorough study and building experience in classical style architecture, and on the other hand the circumstances and conditions that were indispensable accompanies during his architectural journey of discovery and transition.

Not only did Schinkel work extremely hard, with numerous responsibilities, he also had a tireless imagination which no doubt drove him back to work again and again. An almost cruel dominion of mind over body. Schinkel was aware of this, and that it was a danger for his health.

On several occasions and letters, he asks the king to relief him from the amount of work. The requests were always rejected. Schinkel had made himself too important. In the text of this concept essay some parts of sentences are taken directly from some of the consulted books as listed below without referring properly to the original text.

This preliminary essay is meant for educational reasons only. In the inal version of this essay all references will be footnoted accordingly. Mythos Bauakademie, ausstellungskatalog, pg. Deutsche Bauzeitung 10, , pg Karl Friedrich Schinkel, These years have been of great importance in our profession for both architecture and urban planning. Driven by industrialization, architecture was dramatically reinvented during the 19th century.

It was the work of Louis Sullivan, which made me study more closely the Chicago School from till around and Daniel Burnham, especially. It had its own dynamics and there were enormous changes in society, which propelled the development of Metropolitan life as a completely new phenomenon. Basically, this had a profound effect on both architecture and urban planning. We are by necessity permanently inventing and reinventing our profession. With contemporary work we simply lack perspective.

For me personally the study of a period like the Chicago School not only offers insights in pure architectural aspects but also and perhaps more importantly in social and cultural conditions.

This is beyond trivia and interest: The historic perspective allows one to objectively observe current events independent from the inluence of the fashion and trends of today. Consequently we will become more critical when evaluating contemporary issues. Forensically examining the past helps me understand today. The manifestoes, which colour the history of architecture, are not indicative of the everyday work.

They represent the extreme prototype of manifest ideas. These projects relect the personal motives of the Architect. They represent the extraordinary, not the normal. They either represent private or public interests, and more often a mix of both. The everyday reality of the architect is being part of a system.

The economic value of projects forms an important issue. As such, these projects, when built, will mirror the culture of today, they are the witnesses of our society, resulting as a cocktail of economic, political, technical and cultural ingredients within a certain timeframe. A new world By the end of the 19e century cities were booming, both in Europe and in the US. Chicago was one of those cities. Enormous changes took place due to the achievements of the Industrial Revolution.

New building typologies were necessary and thus created by architects and engineers. Architects were also ighting for their position within the ield. More over, during this boom, it was customary for engineers, not architects to lead the building process. The new buildings were much bigger than ever before and had to be constructed at a speed, which the world had witnessed never before. Public buildings, such as theatres, stations, stockexchange buildings, warehouses, department stores, corporate ofice buildings and generic ofice buildings, skyscrapers, hotels, newspaper headquarters, academies, hospitals, industrial plants, urban infrastructure were erected, often stacked next and on top of each other.

The projects were not only bigger and taller; they were constructed extremely fast; employing new building techniques they allowed unique programs. This massive boom required new approaches, new ideas, essentially questioning the elements which deined the architects work. This questioning led to a fundamental change in the role of the architect.

The changes of the profession of the 45 Fig. The appearance of the building emphasizes its verticality; it really wants to be a skyscraper. Architects struggled with the new demands. A Classical approach by itself could not negotiate the new demands. Very often this situation caused the production of weird propositions. Palazzos were stretched; architectural styles were mixed and literally stacked on top of each other. Though the building bears features of classical architecture, like base, shaft and pediment, it clearly moves away from the simple technique of stretching or sampling an existing style and it seeks to truly be a tall building.

Sullivan deined a new language for the high-rise. He completely broke away from historical styles regarding overall conception and ornamentation. He used the ornament to emphasize his objective, in this case verticality. The building is soaring towards the sky. The building was partially, from the second loor up, constructed like this. The ground loor level however was still done the conventional way, its looks remained rather conventional.

In fact, the building is a stretched palazzo. The Home Insurance building is a dinosaur compared to the Wainwright building, constructed only 8 years later in St. This building of Louis Sullivan is generally regarded Sullivan does it again four years later with the Guarantee building in Buffalo The skin of this building is totally ornamented. The exterior is lathered in décor and ornament, like a full body tattoo. In Delft I was taught to interpret that slogan as a functional imperative.

I was confused because I was taught to believe that by applying a functionalistic approach towards the program, the result would be a pure, objective architectural form: I have to admit I was rather naïve. It was through Wright I found Louis Sullivan. It did not naturally appeal to me: I was not able to understand it contextually and formally it did not speak to me. My perception of architecture was constructed via modernism. For me, architecture history began in th.

Only years later it occured to me the actual revolution that took place during the 19th century. Chicago burned down in and within twenty years it has been rebuilt.

The ire was a catalyst for the cities economic boom. The city builds and builds and builds. If one imagines the amount of buildings constructed in the Loop during this period, it actually must have been looking like a huge building pit for those twenty years. The Loop is the old city centre, the area that is circled by the metro on the level of the irst loor of the buildings.

There was no doubt in the minds of the Chicagoans that they were developing one of the largest and most powerful cities in the world. The centre of the city is a system of avenues and streets with small alleys and a underground street network for maintenance and supply. Chicago is building enormous large-scale complexes: Tribune tower competition The Chicago Tribune tower competition in illustrates in a convincing manner, the way in which the formerly mentioned quest led to a new expression for the new programs and demands of a rapidly changing metropolitan society at the end of the 19th century.

Newspapers were becoming increasingly important and powerful in the new democracies at the end of the 19th and of the early twentieth century. Perhaps one of the most powerful newspapers was the Chicago Tribune. They were offering a huge competition reward, , USD 2.

This was not a sign of modesty. The newspaper wanted to identify itself with new innovative vigorous architecture. Even more, the competition was a success. Designs for the new Headquarters were submitted from all over the world. One will ind many very extreme and hilarious examples. They illustrate in a humorous way the struggle of the designers with the new typology, both in scale and form.

One does not have to be architect to see how hilarious some proposals were. Loos used the competition to deliver a powerful critique. Winner, however was the New York based irm of Howell and Hood with a beautiful neo-gothic tower, a real Gotham City project. Louis Sullivan commented on the results of Tribune Tower competition. He said that the project of Raymond Hood and John Mead Howell was based on old ideas, while the project of Eliel Saarinen was a priceless pearl. Gazprom The economy of Russia, which is currently transforming itself from an industrial and agrarian economy into an economy of commodities, was looking for a project that announced this to the world, an icon for Gazprom on the bank of Neva River in St.

The Gazprom proposition for St. Petersburg by Libeskind is as hilarious as some of the proposals for the Tribune Tower were. The Liebeskind was not rewarded. The great ire in Chicago in Source: They conirm knowledge that is already widely accepted, they mark the end of periods, rather than the beginning of a new era. In the competition of Chicago, Hood is representing the ofice.

At that time he is 41 years old and he wins the project. Years later, after a long design process with many revisions, Raymond Hood gets to build the Rockefeller Centre in New York. The project becomes the sublimation of the Manhattan dream. The looks of the inal project remind me of the Saarinen proposal for Chicago Tribune Tower.

Finally, we can conclude, that all of this was the result of a worldwide boom in urbanization as a consequence of the 19th century industrialization of western economies. Cities in Europe and the US grew from The growth began in the irst half of the 19e century, but it was the 2nd half of the Century when it really took off. The notion of metropolis became a reality: Many world-expositions were held; cities were growing fast; architects, politicians, developers, and the like were heavily involved with the question, how to cope with these issues.

In New York Hugh Ferris sketched his dreams of the metropolis. The sketches are beautiful, visionary, futuristic and optimistic. He presents us a future that never happened, a strange mix of Futurism and Realism.

If Blade Runner presents us a future in a décor of the past, Ferris presents us a past in the décor of an imaginary future. People are living in enormous tower bridges; he shows monumental boulevards and enormous buildings.

The Club represents the complete conquest -loor by loor- of the Skyscraper by social activity. The two towers purely represent the new steel-glass tower. The envelope is no longer an articulation of setbacks. The towers have the same section from bottom to top, they have a strong verticality, and the façade is a curtain of steel and glass. The project becomes the prototype for a large array of modern glass towers.

The skyscraper building becomes more and more an industrialized product, made of glass and steel, it escapes the zoning laws by simply having a pure shape, slim and slender, optimized and highly repetitive loor plans around an eficient core. This city was a laboratory for architecture and planning.

Not only large quantities of buildings were produced, but also everything was really new in terms of program, size and typology. There was no precedent. This building boom coincided with the invention of many new technical possibilities that became available for application. There was the invention of electric light, the elevator, new water pressure systems and later HVAC.

The Auditorium building of Adler and Sullivan was already on the drawing board when electricity had become available, Adler had anticipated the use of electric light in the building, imagine the effect of this on the opening night. Architecture did not create these opportunities, but was able to capitalize on them. The Chicago school did not become a world famous and strong architectural style due to the genius of a few great architects, it was born out of this ultra fruitful cocktail of circumstances, which become visible on this timeline.

It is important for me, to precisely follow the order of events to understand how the inluences can be traced back to the results. The inluence of Sullivan is not only important for purely architectural reasons but also to learn about the role of the architect in society. Why did he make this statement? What does he mean stating it? Why does he say it and subsequently creates work, which is so overly decorative? Is the decoration functional?

Or was it just the way things were done? We were taught that functionalism rejected ornamentation. This was a mystery to me, according to my modernist European way of looking. The shape of a building is the result of the optimal organization of the program. We were told that by analysis of the program and organization of space based on proper understanding we would ind a form and this functionalist approach would generate a solution with architectural quality.

I believed this for a long time. However I still did not understand why so many ugly buildings were made according to this modus operandi. Buildings had no longer ornament, which was considered sinful and not honest. Functionalism was about honesty and straight forwardness, a building had to follow the program and be functional.

Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York: Reprint of edition Fig. Interventions in the 19th Centurt Fig. Why would he have made this extreme decoration on the skin of the Guarantee Building? The Wainwright is regarded as the irst ever built skyscraper according to the deinition of Sullivan. It really expressed in its architecture the character of the type. It has the looks of a tall building with its soaring pilaster, which are rapped around the steel frame structure.

Though this is not literally true, half of the brick pilasters in the façade are empty; they were applied to emphasize the verticality and to stress the height of the building. Sullivan expressed the tallness via vertical ornamentation and for him there was no moral dilemma to add extra pilasters without a load bearing function. Wainwright is a very clear message about his work. Proportion of façade is very important.

The façade expresses the tallness of the structure; this is sustained by the decorations and materialization. This expression of character is regarded as a functional aspect. I want to conclude with an extract from Kindergarten Charts by Louis Sullivan: I am endeavouring to impress upon you the simple truth — immeasurable in power of expansion — of the subjective possibilities of objective things.

Kristen Schaffer and Paul Rocheleau, J. Sullivan, Kindergarten Charts and Other Writings, irst edition Mario Manieri Elia ed. Arthur Siegel, Carl W. Condit, Hugh Dalziel Duncan, J. Reprint of edition Clare Jacobson ed. Colour has always evoked extensive discussion and continues to do so today. You either believe that colour, through the use of paint or coloured materials, offers panoply of opportunities for architectural design, or you do not.

At the same time architectural knowledge of the spatial effects of colour in the built environment is not very strongly developed if compared to other aspects of architecture, like the study of programme or typology. Neither side of the double-faced nature of colour in architectural composition is easily systemized. This will be underpinned by plan analyses and close-reading of three precedents.

The double-faced nature of colour The issue of colour in architecture is complex and becomes even more complicated if we consider theories dealing with architectural polychromy.

There have been a wide variety of architectural theories on the use of colour or coloured materials over the past two centuries. The discussion of whether architecture should be polychrome or not, started during the s, after architects had discovered that the Greek temples of antiquity had been painted. If we consider contemporary polychromy in architecture, this deinition appears to be too limited.

The currently very common practice of using two-shelled façades also means that almost every building inevitably ends 61 04 - http: A small neutral grey square in a larger space with a clear colour will take on the colour that is complementary to that of the larger surface. This is an illusion. Independent in this context means: The dificulty of systemizing the position of colour within architectural design starts with the fact that the perception of architectural colour is a very complex phenomenon.

The perception of colour is not only inluenced by architectural form and the colour applied to it as paint or coloured material, but also by the texture and translucency of the coloured surface, the layering of materials, light and shadow, alternating natural and artiicial light, the colours and relections of the surrounding buildings, the combination of colours and their simultaneous effect.

Because of this complexity, discussions on the perception of colour and judgments on colour in architecture often tend to remain in the realm of abstract colour theories or personal taste. In addition, colour has cultural implications and associations that can vary widely from one country or continent to another. Actually, this perception differs from the European perspective, where the contrast of green and red is perceived as balanced, because the colours are complementary and evoke each other.

Last but not least, colour forms an interface between art and architecture. Especially during the s and s, art and architecture had a direct inluence upon each other. But strangely enough, despite these famous experiments colour did not acquire a permanent position in architectural design or education. This is partly due to two historical misunderstandings, which have contributed even more to the unstable status of colour in architecture.

One is the disregard of nineteenth-century architectural theories and their inluence on the Modern Movement. The followers of Modernism opposed nineteenth-century architectural thinking and it was therefore neglected for a long time, until the s and s. And even today, awareness of these historical continuities and transformations often seems to be absent in architectural thinking and education.

In his book Chromophobia, David Batchelor comments on the rejection of colour in general, but also in architecture: In the second, colour is relegated to the realm of the supericial, the supplementary, the inessential or the cosmetic. In one, colour is regarded as alien and therefore dangerous; in the other, it is perceived merely as a secondary quality of experience, and thus unworthy of serious consideration.

Colour is dangerous, or it is trivial, or it is both. Oase 47, Nijmegen, SUN , pp. Mark Wigley, White walls, designers dresses. When people are seeking to establish a new identity, special applications of colour and material are developed. In such a process, colour communicates the new self -awareness within the public domain in a way that is clearly visible, as if it were a fait accompli. The deviating colour and material application, and its striking appearance, stand out immediately and emphasize the new political and cultural consciousness and as a side-product, a new architectural era.

The most interesting European examples of such use of colour date from the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was a time of massive economic, cultural and political change and upheaval on the eve of the First World War. Some regions, such as Catalonia in Spain, underwent rapid economic and cultural development and sought to achieve a new status in the modern world. Good examples of this strive for a local identity is the work of architect Josef Ple nik in Ljubiljana, Slovenia and Eliel Saarinen in Helsinki, Finland.

In Brussels the projects of Victor Horta, and in Barcelona the work of the Modernista movement , in which the architects Antoni Gaudi and Lluís Domènech i Montaner played a prominent part, set an example.

The technique comes from North Africa and the Middle East. Geschichte der Architektur des He ends the chapter by concluding: It was not until the post-war period during thes to s, when the Modern Movement came under revision,14 that architects and architectural students began to show renewed interest in the oeuvre of the supposed dissidents.

In a quest to ind the undamaged roots of early modern architecture, projects and excursions were organized at various places to study this work once again and bring it to public attention. For example, the Department of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology15 undertook such a project and started to work on the issue of colour. In its genesis and function as a concert hall as well as in its architecture, the Palau embodies the new self-awareness of the local bourgeoisie.

Many of them were industrialists who jointly commissioned the building of the Palau and inanced its construction. The use of new industrial products and rationalized construction methods is also striking. Not only were these products and methods aimed at driving the costs down. In fact, the building materials were actually supplied by companies in the Barcelona area, often owned by the new elite.

The Palau itself is rather tightly squeezed into a corner of a city block on a side street of the Via Laietana in the centre of Barcelona. Most of the exterior is red brick and is decorated with sandstone elements, majolica mosaics17 and a few sandstone sculptures. The tile decorations on the exterior and interior of the building are a colourful mishmash, if not collage of materials and production methods. So a great many of the decorations are located on the plinth and the underside of the balcony, and in the loggia on the irst loor.

The corner of the city block, which can be seen from a greater distance, is expressively accentuated. Construction and cladding, regularity and exception blend together seamlessly in both the exterior and the interior. In some places the lack of space is dealt with ingeniously. For example, the box ofice for ticket sales is housed in one of the heavy brick entrance columns.

Another space-saving idea was to move the concert hall, with its large volume, to the irst loor, so the foyer could occupy the street loor. Every effort was made to compensate for the lack of space by letting in the daylight from the surrounding lanes and installing strategically placed skylights: The baroque-looking balusters on the balconies, the stairways and in the concert hall are made of prefabricated, cylindrical glass elements produced industrially en masse.

The colour scheme of the interior unfolds vertically upward, from earth tones to a multitude of colours on the top loor.

The motifs usually refer to elements in nature, which puts them in the nineteenth-century colour tradition such as the one developed by Semper in his Vorläuige Bemerkungen über bemalte Architektur bei den Alten of and later by Ruskin in his The Seven Lamps of Architecture and Owen Jones in The Grammar of Ornament The loor above the concert hall, for example, which forms the roof, is a relatively light combination loor consisting of iron T-sections containing pre-stressed concrete elements about 60 cm in width.

The concrete elements and the iron T-sections are faced with ceramics, but the structure as a whole has been left fully visible.

Some of the prefabricated majolica roses were applied as ribbons, but others form a pattern in which they seem to have been freely scattered around the capitals of the columns. Subesequently Hittdorf actively participated in the discussion of polychromy in architecture by his reconstruction drawings of a coloured antiquity.

A collage is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. Neue Freie Presse, Vienna, 4 September For the English and Dutch translation see: Anatole Baudot , a pupil of Viollet-leDuc, inversed this approach. He decorated the structure and left the illing undecorated. Auguste Perret favoured an architecture that ornamented both, the structure and the panelling or illing.

In his famous house at Rue Franklin 25 in Paris, built in , the concrete skeleton of the building is covered with ornamented materials. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Baukunde. Fitting the roof with a trimming joint made it possible to install a large skylight, which, along with the light from the two facades, bathes the hall in coloured light during the daylight hours.

Gottfried Semper developed the theory of using paint or coloured materials as cladding or dressing,22 which was later re-interpreted by Adolf Loos. In his book The Four Elements of Architecture from , Semper identiies four elements that are all related to materials but also to the metaphysical dimensions of architecture: Dressing in this theoretical context relates to everything that can be seen, felt or smelled on the surface and can thus be perceived.

As David van Zanten27 explains: Semper, like Owen Jones, especially admired the abstraction and geometric construction of lower motifs in the decoration of the Alhambra speciically and Moresque architecture in general. Jones documented this fascination extensively in his Grammar of Ornament in order to show and, together with Semper, even teach about how the abstracted lower motifs were geometrically constructed.

Firstly, they are dynamic, if not Darwinist, because they encompass the idea that civilization transforms and progresses.

In search of a new style, the idea of change is essential. That was intended to re-establish architecture as a realm where all the arts come together in a Gesamtkunstwerk. At the beginning of the twentieth century, with his coloured walls in private houses, Loos paved the way to a modern, abstract application of colour in architecture, which was derived from painting, especially the Expressionism of Oskar Kokoschka. Post-modern colour The post-modern use of colour has a collage-like character However, under the inluence of American Pop Art within post-modern architecture, references came from everywhere, not only nature.

Forms and colours could allude to a made-up architectural history of antiquity, the nineteenth century or the Modern Movement at the same time. But they can also incorporate the world of objects of everyday life, like advertisements, photographs, graphic design, soup cans and so on. Façade styles and patterns can also be mixed, combining elements from every historical period, the natural or artiicial environment, media and the local vernacular.

All of these colour efforts have just one objective: Stuttgart is a German city which was heavily bombed during World War Two. After the war it developed an increasingly afluent automobile industry represented by the headquarters and factories of DaimlerBenz and Porsche. The same can be said about lower and upper loors: Address given at the ceremony of the presentation of the Royal Gold Medal.

Maxwell also writes, though not surprisingly: We are trying to evoke an association with museum, and I ind examples from the 19th century more convincing than examples from the twentieth.

On the one hand Stirling uses ochre and brown lamed sand stone and travertine in a bricklike structure to clad the main volume, but also the rotunda and deviating elements like the entrance hall, ramps and other free shaped volumes.

The continuation of colours and materials from the outside to the inside and vice versa form originally a very British feature developed during the 19th century. Furthermore, the bright, glaring colour range evokes associations of the tradition of British interior decoration in the past but also today.

Right up to today, the four Catalan provinces including the Balearic Islands emphasize their language and culture as important aspects of their autonomy within the Spanish system of government. In fact, autonomy was oficially granted in to Catalonia. One aspect of that culture is Catalan cuisine culinary products are on sale everywhere in the covered markets of Barcelona , and the people of Catalonia are immensely proud of it.

Part of the façades and wings of the old Santa Caterina market are still standing. The roof, however, with its undulating tiles and steel support structure, is new. The tiles are suggestive of the parabola-shaped structures that Gaudí developed for optimal weight distribution based on his hanging chain models. The tile pattern on the roof reveals a collage of magniied fruit, in fact a magniied photograph, with the undulating surface as the garden on which the inhabitants of the surrounding residences can gaze.

Convenciones e identidad - conventions and identity. El Croquis , p. EMBT right page Fig. Also in the design for the Mercat the coloured façade or form of the building volume is actually developed without relation to the functional or spatial organization inside the building.

Decorated façade, here the roof top, and the grand form carry foremost symbolic signs, referring to meanings, which are located outside the actual realm of architecture: As architects, we can only look on it with admiration and envy: In the case of the Staatsgalerie this approach renders a building, which is very complex in its composition, but at the same time easily understood, recognized, identiied and literally accessible for its visitors, combining art and comfort, old and new.

The perception that raw steak does not belong on a coffee table derives from our ingrained sense of hygiene and with customs that impart a certain obviousness and structure to daily life.

The example confronts us with the power and self-evidence of conventions. The irm handshake, the jovial slap on the shoulder, the charm of the compliment, the buttoning up of your shirt or the knotting of your tie, are all conventions that say something about manners, character or upbringing. Conventions offer an appropriate form for many situations in which a person may ind himself. Conventions provide the contemporary city dweller with room to behave like a chameleon: Conventions embody social codes.

The way people greet one another reveals a lot about the background of people who have just met for the irst time. Familiarity with conventions makes it possible to recognize social codes or to interpret behaviour. It gives structure to our daily life, without being immediately aware of this. Even deliberate louting of everyday conventions is a conventional code: Conventions are an inextricable part of our Necessity Architecture, thanks to its millennia-long existence, has many conventions, implicit customs and ingrained habits.

These conventions are visible in the profession, in the craft of designing, in the buildings and in the position of the architect within the design and construction process. Window openings should be one above the other and columns Conventions are in part an expression of your identity: Conventions help the architect, our Mann ohne Eigenschaften, to navigate the complex world. The central paradigm of architecture appeared to be the pursuit of the most eficient realization of spaces with the available means and techniques.

The role of the architect, his relation with his client and the position of the designer within the division of labour in building production — for centuries based on a direct relationship of trust between architect and client — was embedded in the aforementioned conventions.

The architect drew only what was strictly necessary: All the other details were worked out on the job, without any direct instruction from the architect, based on tradition and customs. The profession of architect and the craft of building were still closely connected. Abstraction In the profession there are a number of conventions and habits so deeply rooted that we are scarcely aware of them. Every design task calls for abstraction and encoding: This process of abstraction and encoding creates a distance from the eventual sensory sensation of the material on the building site.

In the design drawing, the physical reality is pared back to a determination of place and size, encoded with a line thickness. Smell, texture, relections or the warmth of the stone surface in the midday sun cannot be and are not conveyed within the evolved conventions of the architectural drawing.

At most, the model may conjure up a fraction of the spatial experience of the future building in all its richness and variety. Through the reduction of the task to a very much smaller scale, the future design is made manageable and literally tangible in study models. This enables the architect to comprehend colossal quantities of cubic metres as a demand for the beauty of the little object in his hand. The seductive little models that balance on the palm of your hand can, through the jump in scale, turn the quantitative demand for built volume into a qualitative demand for simple compositions.

The scale model has no details; it does not show reality, but represents an abstracted and encoded future reality. Only the elements that matter in the design are visible at this scale.

The request for a building of staggering size becomes a qualitative desire for an elegant image, a future that has yet to become reality, encapsulated in a jewel, cradled in your hands. The reduction renders the task comprehensible and enables the designer to form a qualitative judgement about the design.

The convention provides for a search for principles whereby the design process progresses from general to speciic, from overall scheme to detail.

Reversal The precision of computer drawing has radically reversed the architectural convention of reduction and encoding in the design process. To begin with, it is even more dificult to apprehend the size and scale of the building on a computer screen, simply because screens are many times smaller than the old drawing boards.

Furthermore, the system of the drawing programs imposes a merciless precision on the designer; everything has to be laid down with millimetre accuracy within a system of coordinates with X, Y and Z axes, even if virtually nothing is as yet known about the design.

This has led to a complete reversal of the design process as we once knew it. The design no longer evolves from general to speciic, from main outline to detailed elaboration, but starts from the speciic detail, from an intangible, tiny digital point in a virtual space, reproduced on a gently glowing picture plane. The consequences of this reversal in architectural conventions should not be underestimated. It entails a thinking process in which the speciic and exceptional precede the general and the everyday.

Furthermore, the weight of a block of granite is more intangible than ever in the illuminated rectangle of the computer screen. The convention of digital drawing has increased still further the distance from the physical structure and appears to have initiated new customs: The reversal brought about by computer drawing has pushed the order and logic of architectural thinking into the background.

First comes the exception and only then the rule. The paradigm of architecture, the making of a logical composition based on an economy of means, has shifted to the trade in images on the market of urban seduction. Mimesis The computer has introduced a new convention: Dazzling, slick renderings of buildings with lively twentysomethings in the foreground, preferably on roller skates, in the radiant splendour of a digital sunny spring morning, represent our built future.

The buildings appear glassy, transparent and translucent, as if there is nothing to hide anymore. The images are redolent of a Potemkin world: The designs are presented as realistically as possible, the implication being that the representation of the design is real and true. This simulation of reality denies the projective power of the architectural project.

The design is after all a projection of a future that has yet to become reality, rather than a simulation of a known petit bourgeois Arcadia. Bad weather, local identities, the distinctiveness of culture or climate are given no expression by this new global convention. The ilm noir of the modern metropolis, the surrealism of the everyday vanishes from thinking because the representations of new projects convey only the oppressive predictability of the already known.

The computer presentation is the new convention to which everyone seems inevitably to conform. Buildings start to resemble one another because of the software used to generate the images.

The renderings look like the result of global group pressure as to how buildings should manifest themselves, so that the architectural presentations seem conined to expressing the marketing identity: The idea that the architectural project will bring about a transformation in the near future disappears because of the simulation of the known behind a panacea of uniformity.

With the computer-conferred illusion of authenticity, we try in vain to reconcile the productive tension between the architectural project, which exists solely in drawings and models, and the built reality.

Following on from this, he discussed the architectural expression of his own day. First of all, Loos argued that every right-thinking person is aware that tattoos detract from the beauty of the human body and are an expression of a lack of reinement.

Modern human beings dress simply and plainly because they are so self-assured that they do not need to express themselves through their clothing. In short, reinement needs no ornament in order to stand out. A second argument used by Loos is of an economic nature.

The absence of ornament and decoration as a model of good taste and inner reinement is linked to the economic argument of eficiency and logical production. When you use an ornament it is both a sign of a lack of reinement and an unnecessary waste of money. This position led to a paradigm shift in architecture: The effect lives on in architecture today: Whereas up until the nineteenth century there was an iconographic system whereby the nature and importance of a building could be conveyed in friezes and architraves, on wall planes and piers, after Loos this became well nigh impossible.

The distinction between ofice buildings, law courts, factories or schools could no longer be made on the basis of ornament or iconography, but only through volumetric differences. It was left to the composition, the silhouette and the expression of the basic shape of the volume to convey the essence of the building. The many wall surfaces remained bare and empty, stripped of efigy or signiication.

Loos rejected the Viennese conventions and the architectural expression of his time; yet, as a consequence, his paradigm became the new convention of the architectural profession. Globalization In contemporary architecture the demand for an appropriate form or for an expression of the architectural volume is still relevant, even if it appears that there is no longer any shared convention to guide the expression of our buildings. Some contemporary buildings look like train crashes, space ships, fragments from a meteor shower or organically curved drops.

The buildings try to ignore the architectural conventions; the coding behind these outward manifestations seems to be saying that these are truly exceptional buildings. However, the purpose or the function of the building is not clear from the unusual shape. Indeed, these buildings often house nondescript ofice-like functions which all, the world over, under pressure from market conformity, converge in the same mediocre working conditions.

Buildings with an expressive shape or a spectacular silhouette are popping up all over the world. The ostensible triumph of City Branding leads to a paradox: The quest for a speciic identity turns back on itself and leads to global uniformity. The buildings are part of a global visual culture that seems to be detaching itself from speciic circumstances. The distinctiveness of local production conditions no longer seems to igure in architectural thinking: The architectural layering of the transition to the interior world, which results in an appropriate staging of the passage from public life to the private domain, is becoming ever poorer under the pressure of market conformity: The glass shell, as a hard impenetrable screen around the interior, leads to the erosion of the public.

In the absence of any articulated difference between public and private, both aspects vanish into meaninglessness. The curtain wall and mirror glass seem to spell the end of urbanity as we know it; buildings no longer form a public domain but swim in the nondescript residual spaces generated by the exuberant shapes of the built mass and parking lots. Urbanity Architecture cannot be seen in isolation from the city and city life.

The place and role of a building in its immediate context should also reveal something of the nature of the building in question. The architecture of public buildings gives expression to the collective and shapes public life. However, these ambitions are less and less self-evident: It seems that people can no longer identify with the built environment of smooth transparent buildings that populate our public domain like Fremdkörper.

The position and form of the building in the city should abide by the conventions we attach to it: The conventions ensure that you can relate to the building and its immediate surroundings; it creates a meaningful place and space in the public domain. The increasing alienation and disengagement of the public can be partly traced to the lack of a communally experienced public space in the city.

They constitute an attempt to create identity — for a place, an institute or even a community of users, neighbours or city dwellers. Monumentality and ornament are the ideal means by which to represent the signiicance of a building. The overall design, iconography and materiality are instruments in the construction of a local identity. The hollows and gardens — from deep ravines to monumental ponds with steel calyxes — in the heart of our buildings, are a continuation of the public space.

Familiar types of buildings are crossed with characteristic forms of public space: The designs offer both space and a counterform for the public domain. Unburdened by programmatic connotations or intentions, these voids can be understood as sanctuaries for public life.

These monumental sanctuaries are our provisional response to the social quest for buildings with meaning and identity at a time when the collective meaning of buildings can no longer be deined in a self-evident way.

The buildings are conventional in the sense that they attempt to inscribe themselves in the urban culture of the place through their colour, materiality, form or iconography. Depending on the nature of the task, they are cled in colourful vests, crisply chequered shirts or distinguished striped suits.

For each building we test the legibility of the iconographic conventions. At the same time, upon completion each building constructs a new convention. They impart scale to the detail, relief to the volume and ensure a self-evident integration with the surrounding area. At the same time, little hands, poems, pictures and lettering enable visitors to relate to the building and enter into a relationship with it, to become familiar with the newly constructed convention.

As a genuine contemporary chameleon, the visitor takes part in the newly constructed identity of the place. Raw steak on the drawing board The provisional identity sets the local against the global, heterogeneity against homogeneity, diversity against uniformity, layeredness against supericiality.

We look explicitly for an architecture that is tectonic and tangible, with rough plank-concrete, oversized parquet, a glass that is not lat but bumpy and colourful, or that undulates in a silicate embrace around visitors enjoying the view.

The ornament is a conscious craftsmanly intervention in the production of semi-inished articles, before they are inally assembled on the building site.

The ornament creates an anchor point against the homogenization and uniformity of contemporary building production. Ornamentation makes it possible to respond directly to local production conditions, to geographic or cultural particularities. The layeredness whereby a design is both conventional and non-conformist, both gentleman and savage, both smooth and rough, both modern and classical, is a quality we consistently look for in all our designs, based on the irm conviction that architecture must be able to shock and to please, to cherish and to reject in order to remain meaningful within the ilm noir of urban society.

Our quest in Architecture endeavours to represent the surrealism of the everyday, like raw steak on a drawing board. In this article we will probe into this engagement of architecture with the public realm.

A irst question that emerges is:

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Beurette marocaine se baise au stile benda Beurette slut Nadia ama il cazzo 0: Beurette slut 93 marocchina Dressing in this theoretical context relates to everything that can be seen, felt or smelled on the surface and can thus be perceived. As David van Zanten27 explains: Semper, like Owen Jones, especially admired the abstraction and geometric construction of lower motifs in the decoration of the Alhambra speciically and Moresque architecture in general.

Jones documented this fascination extensively in his Grammar of Ornament in order to show and, together with Semper, even teach about how the abstracted lower motifs were geometrically constructed.

Firstly, they are dynamic, if not Darwinist, because they encompass the idea that civilization transforms and progresses. In search of a new style, the idea of change is essential. That was intended to re-establish architecture as a realm where all the arts come together in a Gesamtkunstwerk.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, with his coloured walls in private houses, Loos paved the way to a modern, abstract application of colour in architecture, which was derived from painting, especially the Expressionism of Oskar Kokoschka. Post-modern colour The post-modern use of colour has a collage-like character However, under the inluence of American Pop Art within post-modern architecture, references came from everywhere, not only nature.

Forms and colours could allude to a made-up architectural history of antiquity, the nineteenth century or the Modern Movement at the same time. But they can also incorporate the world of objects of everyday life, like advertisements, photographs, graphic design, soup cans and so on. Façade styles and patterns can also be mixed, combining elements from every historical period, the natural or artiicial environment, media and the local vernacular.

All of these colour efforts have just one objective: Stuttgart is a German city which was heavily bombed during World War Two. After the war it developed an increasingly afluent automobile industry represented by the headquarters and factories of DaimlerBenz and Porsche.

The same can be said about lower and upper loors: Address given at the ceremony of the presentation of the Royal Gold Medal. Maxwell also writes, though not surprisingly: We are trying to evoke an association with museum, and I ind examples from the 19th century more convincing than examples from the twentieth.

On the one hand Stirling uses ochre and brown lamed sand stone and travertine in a bricklike structure to clad the main volume, but also the rotunda and deviating elements like the entrance hall, ramps and other free shaped volumes. The continuation of colours and materials from the outside to the inside and vice versa form originally a very British feature developed during the 19th century. Furthermore, the bright, glaring colour range evokes associations of the tradition of British interior decoration in the past but also today.

Right up to today, the four Catalan provinces including the Balearic Islands emphasize their language and culture as important aspects of their autonomy within the Spanish system of government. In fact, autonomy was oficially granted in to Catalonia. One aspect of that culture is Catalan cuisine culinary products are on sale everywhere in the covered markets of Barcelona , and the people of Catalonia are immensely proud of it. Part of the façades and wings of the old Santa Caterina market are still standing.

The roof, however, with its undulating tiles and steel support structure, is new. The tiles are suggestive of the parabola-shaped structures that Gaudí developed for optimal weight distribution based on his hanging chain models. The tile pattern on the roof reveals a collage of magniied fruit, in fact a magniied photograph, with the undulating surface as the garden on which the inhabitants of the surrounding residences can gaze. Convenciones e identidad - conventions and identity.

El Croquis , p. EMBT right page Fig. Also in the design for the Mercat the coloured façade or form of the building volume is actually developed without relation to the functional or spatial organization inside the building. Decorated façade, here the roof top, and the grand form carry foremost symbolic signs, referring to meanings, which are located outside the actual realm of architecture: As architects, we can only look on it with admiration and envy: In the case of the Staatsgalerie this approach renders a building, which is very complex in its composition, but at the same time easily understood, recognized, identiied and literally accessible for its visitors, combining art and comfort, old and new.

The perception that raw steak does not belong on a coffee table derives from our ingrained sense of hygiene and with customs that impart a certain obviousness and structure to daily life.

The example confronts us with the power and self-evidence of conventions. The irm handshake, the jovial slap on the shoulder, the charm of the compliment, the buttoning up of your shirt or the knotting of your tie, are all conventions that say something about manners, character or upbringing. Conventions offer an appropriate form for many situations in which a person may ind himself. Conventions provide the contemporary city dweller with room to behave like a chameleon: Conventions embody social codes.

The way people greet one another reveals a lot about the background of people who have just met for the irst time. Familiarity with conventions makes it possible to recognize social codes or to interpret behaviour. It gives structure to our daily life, without being immediately aware of this. Even deliberate louting of everyday conventions is a conventional code: Conventions are an inextricable part of our Necessity Architecture, thanks to its millennia-long existence, has many conventions, implicit customs and ingrained habits.

These conventions are visible in the profession, in the craft of designing, in the buildings and in the position of the architect within the design and construction process. Window openings should be one above the other and columns Conventions are in part an expression of your identity: Conventions help the architect, our Mann ohne Eigenschaften, to navigate the complex world. The central paradigm of architecture appeared to be the pursuit of the most eficient realization of spaces with the available means and techniques.

The role of the architect, his relation with his client and the position of the designer within the division of labour in building production — for centuries based on a direct relationship of trust between architect and client — was embedded in the aforementioned conventions. The architect drew only what was strictly necessary: All the other details were worked out on the job, without any direct instruction from the architect, based on tradition and customs.

The profession of architect and the craft of building were still closely connected. Abstraction In the profession there are a number of conventions and habits so deeply rooted that we are scarcely aware of them. Every design task calls for abstraction and encoding: This process of abstraction and encoding creates a distance from the eventual sensory sensation of the material on the building site.

In the design drawing, the physical reality is pared back to a determination of place and size, encoded with a line thickness. Smell, texture, relections or the warmth of the stone surface in the midday sun cannot be and are not conveyed within the evolved conventions of the architectural drawing.

At most, the model may conjure up a fraction of the spatial experience of the future building in all its richness and variety. Through the reduction of the task to a very much smaller scale, the future design is made manageable and literally tangible in study models.

This enables the architect to comprehend colossal quantities of cubic metres as a demand for the beauty of the little object in his hand. The seductive little models that balance on the palm of your hand can, through the jump in scale, turn the quantitative demand for built volume into a qualitative demand for simple compositions. The scale model has no details; it does not show reality, but represents an abstracted and encoded future reality.

Only the elements that matter in the design are visible at this scale. The request for a building of staggering size becomes a qualitative desire for an elegant image, a future that has yet to become reality, encapsulated in a jewel, cradled in your hands.

The reduction renders the task comprehensible and enables the designer to form a qualitative judgement about the design. The convention provides for a search for principles whereby the design process progresses from general to speciic, from overall scheme to detail.

Reversal The precision of computer drawing has radically reversed the architectural convention of reduction and encoding in the design process. To begin with, it is even more dificult to apprehend the size and scale of the building on a computer screen, simply because screens are many times smaller than the old drawing boards.

Furthermore, the system of the drawing programs imposes a merciless precision on the designer; everything has to be laid down with millimetre accuracy within a system of coordinates with X, Y and Z axes, even if virtually nothing is as yet known about the design. This has led to a complete reversal of the design process as we once knew it.

The design no longer evolves from general to speciic, from main outline to detailed elaboration, but starts from the speciic detail, from an intangible, tiny digital point in a virtual space, reproduced on a gently glowing picture plane. The consequences of this reversal in architectural conventions should not be underestimated. It entails a thinking process in which the speciic and exceptional precede the general and the everyday.

Furthermore, the weight of a block of granite is more intangible than ever in the illuminated rectangle of the computer screen. The convention of digital drawing has increased still further the distance from the physical structure and appears to have initiated new customs: The reversal brought about by computer drawing has pushed the order and logic of architectural thinking into the background. First comes the exception and only then the rule. The paradigm of architecture, the making of a logical composition based on an economy of means, has shifted to the trade in images on the market of urban seduction.

Mimesis The computer has introduced a new convention: Dazzling, slick renderings of buildings with lively twentysomethings in the foreground, preferably on roller skates, in the radiant splendour of a digital sunny spring morning, represent our built future.

The buildings appear glassy, transparent and translucent, as if there is nothing to hide anymore. The images are redolent of a Potemkin world: The designs are presented as realistically as possible, the implication being that the representation of the design is real and true. This simulation of reality denies the projective power of the architectural project. The design is after all a projection of a future that has yet to become reality, rather than a simulation of a known petit bourgeois Arcadia.

Bad weather, local identities, the distinctiveness of culture or climate are given no expression by this new global convention. The ilm noir of the modern metropolis, the surrealism of the everyday vanishes from thinking because the representations of new projects convey only the oppressive predictability of the already known.

The computer presentation is the new convention to which everyone seems inevitably to conform. Buildings start to resemble one another because of the software used to generate the images. The renderings look like the result of global group pressure as to how buildings should manifest themselves, so that the architectural presentations seem conined to expressing the marketing identity: The idea that the architectural project will bring about a transformation in the near future disappears because of the simulation of the known behind a panacea of uniformity.

With the computer-conferred illusion of authenticity, we try in vain to reconcile the productive tension between the architectural project, which exists solely in drawings and models, and the built reality. Following on from this, he discussed the architectural expression of his own day. First of all, Loos argued that every right-thinking person is aware that tattoos detract from the beauty of the human body and are an expression of a lack of reinement. Modern human beings dress simply and plainly because they are so self-assured that they do not need to express themselves through their clothing.

In short, reinement needs no ornament in order to stand out. A second argument used by Loos is of an economic nature. The absence of ornament and decoration as a model of good taste and inner reinement is linked to the economic argument of eficiency and logical production. When you use an ornament it is both a sign of a lack of reinement and an unnecessary waste of money. This position led to a paradigm shift in architecture: The effect lives on in architecture today: Whereas up until the nineteenth century there was an iconographic system whereby the nature and importance of a building could be conveyed in friezes and architraves, on wall planes and piers, after Loos this became well nigh impossible.

The distinction between ofice buildings, law courts, factories or schools could no longer be made on the basis of ornament or iconography, but only through volumetric differences. It was left to the composition, the silhouette and the expression of the basic shape of the volume to convey the essence of the building. The many wall surfaces remained bare and empty, stripped of efigy or signiication. Loos rejected the Viennese conventions and the architectural expression of his time; yet, as a consequence, his paradigm became the new convention of the architectural profession.

Globalization In contemporary architecture the demand for an appropriate form or for an expression of the architectural volume is still relevant, even if it appears that there is no longer any shared convention to guide the expression of our buildings. Some contemporary buildings look like train crashes, space ships, fragments from a meteor shower or organically curved drops.

The buildings try to ignore the architectural conventions; the coding behind these outward manifestations seems to be saying that these are truly exceptional buildings. However, the purpose or the function of the building is not clear from the unusual shape. Indeed, these buildings often house nondescript ofice-like functions which all, the world over, under pressure from market conformity, converge in the same mediocre working conditions. Buildings with an expressive shape or a spectacular silhouette are popping up all over the world.

The ostensible triumph of City Branding leads to a paradox: The quest for a speciic identity turns back on itself and leads to global uniformity. The buildings are part of a global visual culture that seems to be detaching itself from speciic circumstances. The distinctiveness of local production conditions no longer seems to igure in architectural thinking: The architectural layering of the transition to the interior world, which results in an appropriate staging of the passage from public life to the private domain, is becoming ever poorer under the pressure of market conformity: The glass shell, as a hard impenetrable screen around the interior, leads to the erosion of the public.

In the absence of any articulated difference between public and private, both aspects vanish into meaninglessness. The curtain wall and mirror glass seem to spell the end of urbanity as we know it; buildings no longer form a public domain but swim in the nondescript residual spaces generated by the exuberant shapes of the built mass and parking lots. Urbanity Architecture cannot be seen in isolation from the city and city life.

The place and role of a building in its immediate context should also reveal something of the nature of the building in question. The architecture of public buildings gives expression to the collective and shapes public life. However, these ambitions are less and less self-evident: It seems that people can no longer identify with the built environment of smooth transparent buildings that populate our public domain like Fremdkörper.

The position and form of the building in the city should abide by the conventions we attach to it: The conventions ensure that you can relate to the building and its immediate surroundings; it creates a meaningful place and space in the public domain. The increasing alienation and disengagement of the public can be partly traced to the lack of a communally experienced public space in the city. They constitute an attempt to create identity — for a place, an institute or even a community of users, neighbours or city dwellers.

Monumentality and ornament are the ideal means by which to represent the signiicance of a building. The overall design, iconography and materiality are instruments in the construction of a local identity. The hollows and gardens — from deep ravines to monumental ponds with steel calyxes — in the heart of our buildings, are a continuation of the public space.

Familiar types of buildings are crossed with characteristic forms of public space: The designs offer both space and a counterform for the public domain.

Unburdened by programmatic connotations or intentions, these voids can be understood as sanctuaries for public life. These monumental sanctuaries are our provisional response to the social quest for buildings with meaning and identity at a time when the collective meaning of buildings can no longer be deined in a self-evident way. The buildings are conventional in the sense that they attempt to inscribe themselves in the urban culture of the place through their colour, materiality, form or iconography.

Depending on the nature of the task, they are cled in colourful vests, crisply chequered shirts or distinguished striped suits. For each building we test the legibility of the iconographic conventions. At the same time, upon completion each building constructs a new convention. They impart scale to the detail, relief to the volume and ensure a self-evident integration with the surrounding area.

At the same time, little hands, poems, pictures and lettering enable visitors to relate to the building and enter into a relationship with it, to become familiar with the newly constructed convention. As a genuine contemporary chameleon, the visitor takes part in the newly constructed identity of the place. Raw steak on the drawing board The provisional identity sets the local against the global, heterogeneity against homogeneity, diversity against uniformity, layeredness against supericiality.

We look explicitly for an architecture that is tectonic and tangible, with rough plank-concrete, oversized parquet, a glass that is not lat but bumpy and colourful, or that undulates in a silicate embrace around visitors enjoying the view. The ornament is a conscious craftsmanly intervention in the production of semi-inished articles, before they are inally assembled on the building site. The ornament creates an anchor point against the homogenization and uniformity of contemporary building production.

Ornamentation makes it possible to respond directly to local production conditions, to geographic or cultural particularities. The layeredness whereby a design is both conventional and non-conformist, both gentleman and savage, both smooth and rough, both modern and classical, is a quality we consistently look for in all our designs, based on the irm conviction that architecture must be able to shock and to please, to cherish and to reject in order to remain meaningful within the ilm noir of urban society.

Our quest in Architecture endeavours to represent the surrealism of the everyday, like raw steak on a drawing board. In this article we will probe into this engagement of architecture with the public realm.

A irst question that emerges is: How do we understand this frequently used notion? The Modern Public Realm: The Experience of Modernity: Each in their own way, they illuminate the profound social changes wrought by modernity: They describe how modernity drastically alters interpersonal relationships and patterns of social cohesion and thus installs a certain ambivalence.

Resisting social ambivalence seems one of the principal concerns of modernity. Michel Freitag describes modernity in comparable terms, as a new way of regulating society. Social codes and messages are no longer conined to traditional symbols, but are also generated and transmitted through new communications media, like newspapers, radio, television, and so forth.

Without a doubt, the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas is one of the most important. His well-known book Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit is devoted entirely to this subject. The public opinion emerging from this rational debate formally and informally inluences the organization of society. In Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit, Habermas summarizes the developmental history of the public realm, which he links to the rise of capitalist society in Europe.

His argument stated briely, is that the advent of the stock exchange, as a result of the march of capitalism, led around to the emergence of trading organizations that obtained political power. The result was a do- main of öffentliche power, in which the state and the dominant economic class were in charge. Those who did not belong to this domain had no access to it. As capitalism continued to expand and intensify, however, a new bourgeois class of doctors, lawyers, and scholars emerged, which developed a critique of öffentliche power.

Hence, in the eighteenth century a bourgeois public realm was born in which the organization of society was subject to critical examination: The press was one medium that played an important role in the formation of public opinion öffentliche Meinung , because it functioned as a forum in which citizens could discuss important social issues. Books, pamphlets, and newspapers circulated among the literate, serving as vehicles for theses, analyses, arguments, and counterarguments that referred to one another or contradicted one another.

New German Critique, no. The Experience of Modernity. New York Penguin Books , p. New German Critique, Winter , no. Special Issue on Niklas Luhmann, pp. It would all have been unthinkable before the eighteenth century: For Habermas the Enlightenment was the radiant, inspiring dawn of modernity, and the creation of the public realm was one of its greatest achievements, if not its very essence.

The opportunity for the public to form their own opinions, he repeatedly emphasizes, is a necessary condition of human freedom and emancipation. According to Habermas, the bourgeois public realm is the backbone of Western democracy, where all the public debates take place that serve as the basis for political decisions, debates that are entirely open to all citizens.

Öffentlichkeit is the realm in which ideas can be freely expressed, exchanged, and criticized. This active formation of public opinion differs strongly from the traditional situation, in which public opinion was characterized primarily by its unconsidered character and the fact that it was not subject to discussion and criticism.

Habermas believes it has been in decline. In late capitalism, Habermas says, the public realm has degenerated into a manipulated realm. The institutions that were supposed to foster and protect the public realm — voluntary associations and the mass media — have gradually been recuperated by state and economy.

Civil-society organizations and associations that previously worked to develop informed public opinion no longer have the critical distance that is indispensable to public debate.

What could have been an institutional pillar of the public realm has degenerated into an instrument of publicity. The iniltration of market principles into the mass media has, according to Habermas, transformed active, rational public debate into passive cultural consumption. Consequently, it completely lacks the form of communication speciic to the public. In Öffentlichkeit und Erfahrung, they emphasize that one of the essential features of the public realm is that it always contains Gegenöffentlichkeit, counter-public realms.

They claim that the public realm is not an expression of the discourse within a single social class, but that more typically a variety of social groups lend their contrasting voices to the debate. The two authors stress the plurality of the public realm, in which new forms of public life are constantly emerging: Here and in what follows we only understand the public realm as an aggregate of phenomena that have completely diverse characteristics and origins. The public realm has no homogeneous substance whatsoever.

Zur Organisationsanalyse von bürgerlicher und proletarischer Öffentlichkeit. Suhrkamp Verlag ; English trans. Public Realm and Experience: Translated by Peter Labanyi et al. October Autumn , vol. Communication Theory , , vol. MIT Press , p. Adorno published in in which he highlighted the importance of the mass media in the modern public realm.

His analysis of the mass media as simultaneously inculcating a normative concept of the public realm and acting as vehicles for public practices still seems important today as we seek to understand new counterpublic realms.

The public realm, Arendt says, is a place where people act rather than work. This perspective she bases on an Aristotelian distinction between two forms of activity. The irst type of activity,labour, is characterized by necessity and compulsion, and the second, action, by freedom and self-realization. By acting and speaking in public space, we appear to one another as free and equal individuals, and politics becomes possible, Arendt claims.

It is the space of appearance in the widest sense of the word, namely the space where I appear to others as others appear to me, where men exist not merely like other living or inanimate things but make their appearance explicitly. Out of this perspective, the public space is the stage on which people perform. Hence, Arendt clearly does not simply equate the public realm with the agora, or with any other particular public space, urban or otherwise.

She believes that the public realm can take many forms. The media can potentially do a great deal to support this culture, she says.

They contribute information, creating their own little public spaces — in newspapers, for example — where citizens can think about public themes together. Firstly, she sees the public realm as essential to human existence. What appears in the public realm must be genuinely visible and accessible to everyone. Reality is irst constituted by this process of entering the public realm: For us, appearance — something that is being seen and heard by others, as well as by ourselves — constitutes reality.

Only a life lived in public can be meaningful, Arendt says. Undoubtedly, Architecture is part of this world of things — and is as such a premise for public life. Arendt, too, refers to a decline in the public realm. Idem, Soziologische Schriften I, Frankfurt , pp. Sociological Theory, March , vol. New Media Society, , no. Calhoun, Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. Within this context public space was understood as the social space in which strangers meet.

Whoever took a stroll on the boulevard or went to the theatre was venturing out among unfamiliar people. Until that time, the theatre and opera-going public had been a relatively close circle of people who knew each other well, and when they gathered to see a performance, it was usually by invitation.

In modern urban life, however, the public had increasingly become an assemblage of strangers, and tellingly, performances no longer required an invitation but the purchase of a ticket.

As encounters with strangers became more frequent, society needed new social conventions to bring order to the new domain of the public. Civicness permeated every aspect of public interaction, such as language, dress, and, above all, attitude: It was quite normal for passers-by in public spaces to greet one another, even if they were complete strangers.

The patrons of cafés and ale houses freely debated matters of general interest without being acquainted. Personal remarks were avoided. The public domain was a safe haven, where people could trade in their private concerns for a publicly oriented cosmopolitan life. What was true of interaction in parks and theatres was also true of public debate; whoever took part in it was entering the public domain and had therefore to obey the rules of public appearance.

NAi Collectie, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Argument was part of civicness, as were courtesy, tact, and charm. It was the most suitable way of ensuring that disagreements between strangers did not get out of hand. In this climate of tolerance and sociable interaction with strangers, public debate could lourish, says Sennett, whose argument in this respect resembles that of Habermas. Not only urban space, but also politics became public.

The public realm and architecture: They want their aspiration for monumentality, joy, pride, and excitement to be satisied. The fulilment of this demand can be accomplished with the new means of expression at hand, though it is no easy task.

In Western society, envisioning the public realm by means of architectural and urban form is one of the chief aims of modern architecture. Within ive years, May had not only provided new housing for one quarter of the population, but also arrived at a new deinition of the modern public realm. The landscape and the transitions between architecture and landscape play a key role in this deinition.

New York Vintage , p. New York Vintage 26 - Ibidem, p. Above all, it offers the expression of a modern public realm characterized by leisure time and recreation and intended to result in a neues Leben: It was a modernist landscape composed of two realms: Layers of Publicness As a protagonist of the modern movement Le Corbusier kept its end up in the debate on the architectural articulation of the public realm. Two sketches are instrumental to understand this deinition. This sketch illustrates how Le Corbusier wanted to depart from a 19th century bourgeois form of the street.

Three layers of public space are activated. A irst layer consists of the landscape. Hence, in the Unité the living quarters begin only on the irst loor and are set on huge concrete piers, turning the ground loor in an open sheltered plaza and securing the continuity of the public landscape. Most of the apartments are double height units that wrap vertically around horizontal streets that occur on levels 2, 5, 10, 13, and 16 of the building.

Le Corbusier gives these internal streets a generous dimension and articulates the different entrance doors to the apartments as full-ledged entrance portals with large doors and special delivery cases for the milkman and baker. At one instance the internal street is moved towards the perimeter of the building envelope: At this level Le Corbusier designs public furniture; the same benches and lamp posts as can be found on the public landscape of the ground loor.

Along this public street the services for the entire neighboruhood are located: At this top loor of the building, and with the view on both the mountains and the Mediteranean, an artiicial public landscape is designed. Le Corbusier articulates a sculpturous topography of public spaces that is almost entirely related to leisure and well-being: It deines the characteristics and dimensions of the various layers without really relating them.

The Golden Lane Housing: Clustering the Public The relation between the different sorts, scales and hierarchies of public space would become a main point of attention for the English architects Alison and Peter Smithson.